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ABAPINTO_CLAUSE - INTO CLAUSE

ABAPINTO_CLAUSE - INTO CLAUSE

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SELECT, INTO, APPENDING

Short Reference



... ${ INTO
        ( elem1, elem2,  ...) $}
  $| ${ INTO
        $[CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF$] wa $[indicators$] $}
  $| ${ INTO$|APPENDING
        $[CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF$] TABLE itab $[indicators$]
                                             $[PACKAGE SIZE n$] $}
    $[ extended_result $]
    $[ creating $] ... .


Alternatives:

1. ... INTO (elem1, elem2, ...)

2. ... INTO $[CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF$] wa ...

3. ... INTO$|APPENDING $[CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF$] TABLE itab ...

Effect

The additions INTO or APPENDING construct the INTO clause of a SELECT, WITH, or FETCH statement. They define which ABAP data objects are assigned the data of the result set of a query and how this assignment is made. The following options are available:

  • An assignment to a parenthesized comma-separated list of individual elementary data objects elem1, elem2, .... specified after INTO.
  • An assignment to a single work area wa specified after INTO.
  • An assignment to an internal table itab specified after INTO or APPENDING.

The data objects elem1, elem2, ...., wa, and itab can be specified as existing host variables or declared inline using @DATA. An addition NEW makes it possible to create target areas implicitly as anonymous data objects.

The additions have the following meaning:

  • In writes to work areas wa and internal tables itab, CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF can be used to assign columns of the result set to identically named components of structured target areas.
  • In writes to internal tables, PACKAGE SIZE can be used to split lines of the result set into packages.
  • indicators can be used to specify indicators. Currently, a null indicator can be specified with information about whether a column of the result set contains the null value.
  • extended_result can be used to provide an extended result in a result object.

These additions can all be used together with the following exceptions:

  • The addition CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF cannot be used together with inline declarations @DATA for wa or itab.
  • The addition APPENDING cannot be specified together with NEW.

If the target area is specified using field symbols or reference variables, and a SELECT loop is closed using ENDSELECT, the data object referenced by a field symbol or reference variable is identified exactly once when the loop is entered. This data object is used as a target area in each loop pass. Any modifications to the assignment of a field symbol or reference variable within the loop are ignored.

The INTO clause must be the final clause of a main query and the additions UP TO, OFFSET, a abap_options must be placed after the INTO clause.

Notes

  • Whether data should better be read into an internal table or a work area depends on the type of further processing: If data is required only once in a program, it should be imported into a work area, row by row, using a SELECT loop. Reading data into an internal table requires more memory space without compensating this disadvantage with a considerably higher reading speed. If, on the other hand, data is required many times in a program, it should be read into an internal table. The disadvantage of the increased memory requirement is more than compensated for here by the advantage of a once-only selection.
  • If data is to be imported into an internal table, it is better to import it once into an internal table than to read it, row by row, into a work area and insert its content in the internal table.
  • The INTO clause and its rules are not affected by the implicit client handling of ABAP SQL. In particular, the client column of a target structure can be filled with other values than the client ID, for example when assigning individually specified columns of a select list.
  • The statement SELECT also has an obsolete short form, in which INTO or APPENDING can be omitted.
  • Reference variables for LOB handles or LOB handle structures cannot currently be specified after the statement FETCH.
  • Host variables without the escape character @ are obsolete. The escape character @ must be specified in the strict modes of the syntax check from Release .
  • Outside the strict mode of the syntax check from Release , the INTO clause does not have to be the last clause of a main query.

Alternative 1

... INTO (elem1, elem2, ... )


Effect

Specifies a parenthesized and comma-separated list of elementary data objects elem1, elem2, ... as target areas of the INTO clause. This specification is only possible if the columns of the result set are defined using one or more explicitly specified columns col_spec in the SELECT list. Each of the data objects elem1, elem2, ... can be specified as existing host variables or declared inline using @DATA. The addition NEW allows the creation of anonymous data objects.

The comma-separated list must have the same number of elements as columns in the result set. The content of the columns in the result set is assigned to the data objects specified in the list from left to right in accordance with the order specified after SELECT. Assignment rules apply to the individual assignments. If a LOB is assigned to a reference variable for LOB handles, a LOB handle is created. If an offset/length is specified to access a data object, +off must not be omitted. If the result set is empty, the data objects remain unchanged. If a catchable exception is raised when the data objects are written to, their content is undefined when the exception is handled.

If the result set consists of one row, the columns of this row are assigned to the data objects. If the result set has multiple rows, the statements SELECT and WITH are used to open a SELECT loop that itself must be closed using ENDSELECT or ENDWITH. A SELECT loop assigns the columns of the result set to the data objects row by row and evaluates them. If used in the statement FETCH, the columns of the row are extracted at the current cursor position.

Notes

  • If the result set is defined in the SELECT list by specifying * or data_source~*, it is not possible to specify a comma-separated list of data objects.
  • The comma-separated list can span multiple program lines.

Example

Reading of the three columns of a result set to three elementary data objects. The first data object carrid is a previously declared host variable. The second data object carrname is a host variable declared inline. The third data object is an anonymous data object created using NEW and to which a data reference variable dref declared inline points.

Example

Reading of the four columns of a result set into four individually specified components of a structure. Unlike when writing to a work area using CORRESPONDING FIELDS (see below), the runtime framework does not compare names here.

Alternative 2

... INTO $[CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF$] wa


Effect

Specifies a single work area wa as a target area of the INTO clause. This can be specified for all result sets. The data object wa can be specified as an existing host variable or declared inline using @DATA. The addition NEW allows the creation of an anonymous data object.

If the result set consists of a single row, this row is assigned to the work area wa. If the result set has multiple rows, the statements SELECT and WITH are used to open a SELECT loop that itself must be closed using ENDSELECT or ENDWITH. A SELECT loop assigns the result set to the work area wa row by row and evaluates it. After ENDSELECT or ENDWITH, the work area wa contains the row that was assigned last. If used in the FETCH statement, a row is extracted at the current cursor position. If the result is empty, the work area remains unchanged. If a catchable exception is raised when the work area is filled, its content is undefined when the exception is handled.

If the optional addition CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF is specified, wa must be a structure. This addition specifies that only the content of columns that have identically named components in wa is assigned to them. If the addition CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF is not specified, wa must meet the prerequisites described under Work Areas in Statements. The rows of the result set are assigned as follows, based on the definition of the result set in the SELECT list:

  • Definition of the result set using * without the addition CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF in the INTO clause:
If all columns of the data sources are read using *, CORRESPONDING FIELDS is not specified and the SELECT statement is not the main query of a WITH statement, SELECT behaves as follows:
  • A work area without LOB handle components is assigned the row of the result set, left-aligned and unconverted and in accordance with the structure of the result set. Unaffected parts of wa retain their previous content. To be able to access the components of the result set according to type after the assignment, the work area wa must be structured like the result set.

  • When a LOB handle structure is specified, it must be constructed exactly like the structure of the data source, in accordance with the prerequisites. The content of the columns of the result set that are not assigned to any LOB handle components are directly assigned to the corresponding components of the work area. One LOB handle is created for each LOB handle component.

  • All Other Combinations
If the result set consists of a single column specified explicitly after SELECT or a single SQL expression or a single aggregate expression, wa can be an elementary data object or a structure. If the result set consists of multiple columns, it must be a structure and the following rules apply:
  • If the addition CORRESPONDING FIELDS is not specified, wa must contain enough components and the content of the columns are assigned to the components of wa from left to right in the order specified after SELECT. The content of surplus components of wa is not changed.

  • If the addition CORRESPONDING FIELDS is specified, only those content of columns for which there are identically named components in wa are assigned to them. The alias names defined using AS are respected. Columns and aggregate expressions that appear multiple times can only be assigned using alias names, if CORRESPONDING FIELDS is specified. If wa contains substructures, these are resolved by the addition CORRESPONDING FIELDS and the full names linked using the structure component selector are considered. If a column name occurs multiple times and no alias name was assigned, the last column listed is assigned. If one or more names match, all the columns for which there are no name matches are removed from the SELECT list implicitly and therefore from the result set as well. If there are no name matches, none of the columns are removed from the result set. If * is specified for the SELECT list, it may be updated to a list of columns implicitly.

Assignment rules apply to the individual assignments. If a LOB of a reference variable for LOB handles is assigned, a LOB handle is created. If an offset/length is specified to access a substring of wa, +off must not be omitted.

If CORRESPONDING FIELDS is used, the columns of the result set defined in the SELECT list must match the components of the target area on a certain level. Among other things, there must be at least one name match or there must be an identically named component in the target area for each explicitly specified column.

Notes

  • The second point above, "All Other Combinations" also includes data_source~* when specified in the SELECT list. In this case, wa must be a structure. This is particularly valid when only one data source data_source~* is specified. If a single data_source~* is specified, therefore, other rules apply than in the case where * is specified, even if the same result sets are defined both times.
  • The addition CORRESPONDING FIELDS ignores names that were only defined using the addition AS name of the statement INCLUDE or when integrating the structures in the ABAP Dictionary. Any components renamed using the addition RENAMING WITH SUFFIX of the statement INCLUDE or renamed similarly in the ABAP Dictionary are, however, not ignored.
  • If the addition CORRESPONDING FIELDS is used, fields with matching names (if known statically) are assigned when the program is generated or are otherwise assigned once when the SELECT statement is executed.
  • If individual columns are read and the structure of the result set is known statically, it is recommended that a list of data objects or inline declarations are used instead of using the addition CORRESPONDING FIELDS.
  • If the addition INTO CORRESPONDING is used and all the required information exists statically, the fields are assigned when the program is generated. Otherwise, the fields are assigned once when the SELECT statement is executed, which causes a slight increase in the required runtime.
  • The addition INTO CORRESPONDING modifies the actual SELECT list that is actually passed to the database and hence also the SELECT statement. If one or more names match, all the columns for which there are no name matches are removed from the SELECT list implicitly. If there are no name matches, no columns are removed. If * is specified for the SELECT list, it may be updated to a list of columns implicitly.
  • The variants with the addition INTO CORRESPONDING FIELDS run the risk of having target areas with more components than are actually filled. This should only be the case if the components that are not filled are then filled in the program. Otherwise appropriately sized work areas should be used to avoid a large amount of memory being filled by initial values, especially in internal tables.

Example

Reading of all columns of a row of a result set into structured work areas. In the first SELECT statement, wa is a previously declared host variable. In the second SELECT statement, wa_inl is a host variable declared inline. In the third SELECT statement, the work area is created as an anonymous data object using NEW. This object is pointed to using a data reference variable dref declared inline.

Example

Reading of the four columns of a result set into four respective components of the same name in a work area in a different order.

Alternative 3

... INTO$|APPENDING $[CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF$] TABLE itab


Addition:

... PACKAGE SIZE n

Effect

Specifies an internal table itab as a target area of the INTO clause. This can be specified for all result sets. The data object itab can be specified as an existing host variable or declared inline using @DATA. The addition NEW makes it possible to create an anonymous data object.

An internal table can only be specified after INTO TABLE or after APPENDING TABLE if the result set has multiple rows. The internal table can have any table category. Its row type must meet the same prerequisites as a work area wa.

The result set with multiple rows is inserted into the internal table itab row-by-row in accordance with the rules of INSERT. A sorting process is executed in the case of a sorted table.

  • If INTO is used, the internal table is initialized before the rows are inserted.
  • Preceding rows are preserved if APPENDING is used. APPENDING cannot be used together with the addition NEW.

If there is a conflict with an existing unique table key, an uncatchable exception is raised like in the case of the statement INSERT LINES OF.

Before any assignment of a row of the result set, an initial row of the internal table itab is created and the row of the result set is assigned to this row. When assigning a row of the result set to a row of the internal table with or without CORRESPONDING FIELDS, the same rules apply as when assigning to an individual work area wa (see above) with the exception that when inserting into internal tables, LOB handles can be created as locators but not as reader streams.

If the addition PACKAGE SIZE is not specified, all rows of the result set are inserted into the internal table itab and the statements ENDSELECT or ENDWITH statement must not be specified after SELECT or WITH.

If the result set is empty, the internal table is initialized when INTO is used, and remains unchanged when APPENDING is used. If a catchable exception is raised when the internal table is filled, its content is undefined when the exception is handled.

Notes

  • When specifying an internal table with a unique primary or secondary table key, an uncatchable exception is raised if an attempt is made to create a duplicate entry.
  • If the internal table contains more columns than required when using the addition CORRESPONDING FIELDS, generally too much memory is being used by initial fields and a warning is raised by the syntax check. In cases where the columns are needed, for example when they are filled with derived values by the program, a pragma can be used to bypass the warning.
  • The maximum number of data streams that can be assigned to an statement is limited to 16, which means it does not make any sense to create reader streams when importing internal tables.
  • Instead of using APPENDING TABLE to form union sets on the AS ABAP, this can now be done directly in the database using UNION, and SQL expressions can be used to calculate column values.

Example

Reading of all columns of all rows of a result set into structured internal tables. In the first SELECT statement, itab is a previously declared host variable. In the second SELECT statement, itab_inl is a host variable declared inline. In the third SELECT statement, the internal table is created as an anonymous data object using NEW. This object is pointed to using a data reference variable dref declared inline.

Example

Reading of the four columns of a result set into four respective components of the same name in an internal table in a different order.

Example

The following example for APPENDING TABLE creates the same internal table as the example for UNION.

Addition

... PACKAGE SIZE n

Effect

If the addition PACKAGE SIZE is specified after INTO$|APPENDING TABLE, the rows of the result set are inserted into the internal table itab in packages of n rows. In the case of the statements SELECT and WITH, a SELECT loop is opened that itself must be closed using ENDSELECT or ENDWITH. n expects a host variable, a host expression, or a literal of type i that contains the number of rows. If n is an untyped literal or a host variable, its content must match the data type i in accordance with the rules for a lossless assignment. n must have the type b, s, i, or int8. This is checked in strict mode of the syntax check from Release . If the value of n is less than 0, an exception is raised that cannot be handled. If n is equal to 0, all rows of the result set are inserted into the internal table itab. If used in the statement FETCH, n rows are extracted from the current cursor position.

If INTO is used, the internal table is initialized before each insertion and, in the SELECT loop, it only contains the rows of the current package. If APPENDING is used, a further package is added to the existing rows of the internal table for each SELECT loop or for each extraction using FETCH.

After ENDSELECT or ENDWITH, the content of itab is not defined if INTO is used. That is, the table can either contain the rows of the last package or it can be initial. If APPENDING is used, the content of itab retains the state of the last loop pass.

Notes

  • The addition PACKAGE SIZE can be used after INTO to limit the amount of data read at once. Otherwise, a runtime error can occur when reading a data set that is too large into an internal table so that its maximum size is exceeded. PACKAGE SIZE cannot prevent this runtime error after APPENDING.
  • If the addition PACKAGE SIZE is specified with the addition FOR ALL ENTRIES, all selected rows are read into an internal system table initially and the packages are only created when they are passed from the system table to the actual target table. The addition FOR ALL ENTRIES thereby negates the effect of PACKAGE SIZE in preventing memory overflow.
  • The addition PACKAGE SIZE does not affect the size of the packages configurable in the profile parameters used to transport data between the database server and AS ABAP.

Example

Reading and output of the columns of the DDIC database table SPFLI in packages of 10 rows.






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