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1. f op g
2. f [NOT] BETWEEN g1 AND g2
3. f [NOT] LIKE g
4. f [NOT] IN (g1, ..., gn)
5. f [NOT] IN subquery
6. f [NOT] IN itab
7. f IS [NOT] NULL
8. [NOT] EXISTS subquery
9. NOT cond
10. cond1 AND cond2
11. cond1 OR cond2
12. (source_text)
Specified in the
to check whether data from various database tables or views meets certain criteria.
See Open SQL and Unicode.
You must not use database columns of the types
STRING or RAWSTRING in logical conditions.
f op g
The condition is fulfilled for a table line if the statement "f op g" is true for the values of f and g. f must always be a
field descriptor and g either a
field descriptor, an ABAP field or a
subquery. A HAVING clause may contain f and g
aggregate expressions. You can use any of the following relational operators:
EQ, = (Equal)
NE, <> (Not Equal)
LT, < (Less Than)
LE, <= (Less or Equal)
GT, > (Greater Than)
GE, >= (Greater or Equal)
See Wrong logical operators in the WHERE clause.
Example to select all Lufthansa flights:
DATA WA_SPFLI LIKE SPFLI
SELECT * FROM SPFLI INTO WA_SPFLI
WHERE CARRID = 'LH'.
WRITE: / WA_SPFLI-CITYFROM, WA_SPFLI-CITYTO.
ENDSELECT.
To select all flights that are not fully booked:
DATA WA_SFLIGHT TYPE SFLIGHT
SELECT * FROM SFLIGHT INTO WA_SFLIGHT
WHERE SFLIGHT-SEATSOCC LT SFLIGHT-SEATSMAX.
WRITE: / WA_SFLIGHT-CARRID, WA_SFLIGHT-CONNID, WA_SFLIGHT-FLDATE.
ENDSELECT.
To select the flights with the greatest number of passengers:
DATA WA_SFLIGHT TYPE SFLIGHT.
SELECT * FROM SFLIGHT
WHERE SEATSOCC = ( SELECT MAX( SEATSOCC ) FROM SFLIGHT ).
WRITE: / WA_SFLIGHT-CARRID, WA_SFLIGHT-CONNID, WA_SFLIGHT-FLDATE.
ENDSELECT.
If the statement "f op g" is not true, it is not automatically false: It is
only false, if neither f nor g has the value NULL. If f or g is ZERO, the check returns the value unknown for the statment
"f op g". See also variant 7.
None of the following commands contains a line in which the field TELEPHONE contains the value NULL:
DATA WA_SCUSTOM TYPE SCUSTOM
SELECT * FROM SCUSTOM INTO WA_SCUSTOM WHERE TELEPHONE = ' '.
ENDSELECT.
SELECT * FROM SCUSTOM INTO WA_SCUSTOM WHERE TELEPHONE <> ' '.
ENDSELECT.
SELECT * FROM SCUSTOM INTO WA_SCUSTOM WHERE NOT TELEPHONE = ' '.
ENDSELECT.
f [NOT] BETWEEN g1 AND g2
The condition is met for a table entry if the statement "f is (not) between g1 and g2" is true for the values of f, g1 and g2. f must always be a
field descriptor and g1 and g2
ABAP fields. If f has the value NULL, the check for the statement returns unknown.
Example to select all passenger aircraft with 200 - 250 seats.
DATA WA_SAPLANE TYPE SAPLANE.
DATA: LOW TYPE I VALUE 200,
HIGH TYPE I VALUE 250.
SELECT * FROM SAPLANE INTO WA_SAPLANE
WHERE SEATSMAX BETWEEN LOW AND HIGH.
WRITE: / WA_SAPLANE-PLANETYPE.
ENDSELECT.
You cannot use this variant in the ON addition of the FROM clause.
f [NOT] LIKE g
The condition is met for a table entry if the statement "f (does not) equal the pattern in g" is true for the values of f and g. f must always be a
field descriptor, and g an ABAP
field or an ABAP string. If f has the value NULL, then the result of the check for the statement is unknown. Within a pattern, there are two special characters:
Example to select all customers whose name begins with 'M':
DATA SCUSTOM_WA TYPE SCUSTOM.
SELECT ID NAME FROM SCUSTOM
INTO CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF SCUSTOM_WA
WHERE NAME LIKE 'M%'.
WRITE: / SCUSTOM_WA-ID, SCUSTOM_WA-NAME.
ENDSELECT.
Example to select all customers whose name contains 'huber':
DATA SCUSTOM_WA TYPE SCUSTOM.
SELECT ID NAME FROM SCUSTOM
INTO CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF SCUSTOM_WA
WHERE NAME LIKE '%huber%'.
WRITE: / SCUSTOM_WA-ID, SCUSTOM_WA-NAME.
ENDSELECT.
Example to select all customers whose name does not contain 'n' as the second character:
DATA SCUSTOM_WA TYPE SCUSTOM.
SELECT ID NAME FROM SCUSTOM
INTO CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF SCUSTOM_WA
WHERE NAME NOT LIKE '_n%'.
WRITE: / SCUSTOM_WA-ID, SCUSTOM_WA-NAME.
ENDSELECT.
... ESCAPE h
The field h contains an escape symbol. A special character within the pattern g is not regarded as a special character if it is preceded by the escape character.
Example to select all customers whose name begins with '100%':
DATA SCUSTOM_WA TYPE SCUSTOM.
SELECT ID NAME FROM SCUSTOM
INTO CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF SCUSTOM_WA
WHERE NAME LIKE '100#%' ESCAPE '#'.
WRITE: / SCUSTOM_WA-ID, SCUSTOM_WA-NAME.
ENDSELECT.
f [NOT] IN (g1, ..., gn)
The condition is met for a table entry if the statement "f is (not) contained in the list g1, ..., gn" is true for the values of f, g1, ..., gn. f must always be a
field descriptor and g1, ...,
gn an ABAP field. If f has the value NULL, the check for the statement returns unknown.
Example to select all destinations served by American Airlines, Lufthansa or Singapore Airlines from Frankfurt:
DATA TARGET LIKE SPFLI-CITYTO.
SELECT DISTINCT CITYTO
INTO TARGET FROM SPFLI
WHERE
CARRID IN ('AA', 'LH', 'SQ') AND
CITYFROM = 'FRANKFURT'.
WRITE: / TARGET.
ENDSELECT.
The opening parenthesis that introduces the list, and the name g1 of the first field in the field list must not be separated by a space.
f [NOT] IN subquery
The condition is met for a table entry if the statement "f is (not) contained in the result of subquery subquery" is true for the value of f. f must always be a
field descriptor and subquery a
scalar subquery. If f has the value NULL, the result of the check for the statement is unknown.
Example to select flights with the most passengers:
DATA WA_SFLIGHT TYPE SFLIGHT.
SELECT * FROM SFLIGHT INTO WA_SFLIGHT
WHERE SEATSOCC IN ( SELECT MAX( SEATSOCC ) FROM SFLIGHT ).
WRITE: / WA_SFLIGHT-CARRID, WA_SFLIGHT-CONNID, WA_SFLIGHT-FLDATE.
ENDSELECT.
You cannot use this variant in the ON addition of the FROM clause.
f [NOT] IN itab
The condition is true if the contents of field f in the database table (do not) satisfy the condition stored in the internal table itab. If the statement is not true, it is false.
The internal table itab must have the structure of a RANGES tablel for f. You can create it using RANGES itab FOR
f, SELECT-OPTIONS itab FOR f or DATA.
If you create itab using SELECT-OPTIONS,
it is automatically filled with the user defaults. Otherwise, you must fill it explicitly in your program. This is a way of specifying parts of the WHERE condition at runtime.
Each line of itab contains an elementary condition, where the columns have the following meaning:
The elementary conditions contained in itab can be combined to form a complex condition:
Example to select customer numbers:
but not customer numbers
DATA: WA_SCUSTOM TYPE SCUSTOM.
SELECT-OPTIONS: R FOR WA_SCUSTOM-ID.
* RANGES: R FOR WA_SCUSTOM-ID.
* R is filled as follows (sequence of lines
* is irrelevant:
*
* SIGN OPTION LOW HIGH
* --------------------------------
* I EQ 01104711
* I BT 10000000 19999999
* I GE 90000000
* E EQ 10000911
* E BT 10000810 10000815
* E CP ++++5*
*
* So the condition is
*
* ( ID = '01104711' OR
* ID BETWEEN '10000000' AND '19999999' OR
* ID >= '90000000' )
AND
* ID <> '10000911' AND
* ID NOT BETWEEN '10000810' AND '10000815' AND
* ID NOT LIKE '____5%'
*
SELECT * FROM SCUSTOM INTO WA_SCUSTOM WHERE ID IN R.
...
ENDSELECT.
f IS [NOT] NULL
The condition is true if the contents of table field f (does not) contain(s) the NULL value.
Example to select all customers for whom no telephone number is specified:
DATA WA_SCUSTOM TYPE SCUSTOM.
SELECT * FROM SCUSTOM INTO WA_SCUSTOM WHERE TELEPHONE IS NULL.
ENDSELECT.
Performance:
The SAP buffer does not support this variant.
Therefore, every SELECT command on a buffered
table or a view with fields from buffered table that contains ... WHERE f IS [NOT] NULL behaves
as though the FROM clause contained the BYPASSING BUFFER addition.
[NOT] EXISTS subquery
The condition is met for a table entry if the result set of the subquery subquery contains [does not contain] any lines.
Selects the flights for which at least one booking exists:
DATA WA_SFLIGHT TYPE SFLIGHT.
SELECT * FROM SFLIGHT AS F INTO WA_SFLIGHT
WHERE EXISTS ( SELECT * FROM SBOOK
WHERE CARRID = F~CARRID
AND CONNID = F~CONNID
AND FLDATE = F~FLDATE ) .
WRITE: / WA_SFLIGHT-CARRID, WA_SFLIGHT-CONNID, WA_SFLIGHT-FLDATE.
ENDSELECT.
Note,,You
cannot use this variant in the ON addition of the FROM clause.
NOT cond
NOT cond is true when cond is false. The condition is false when cond is true. This gives the following truth table:
-------------------------
| NOT | |
-------------------------
| true | false |
| false | true |
| unknown | unknown |
-------------------------
cond can be any condition according to WHERE variants 1 - 12. NOT is stronger than AND and OR. You can use parentheses to determine the sequence for analysis explicitly.
Parentheses establishing the analysis sequence must be separated by spaces.
Example to select customers with customer numbers who do not live in ZIP code area 68.
... WHERE NOT POSTCODE LIKE '68%'
cond1 AND cond2
cond1 AND cond2 is true if cond1 and cond2 are both true. The condition is false when either cond1 or cond2 is false. This gives the following truth table:
-------------------------------------------------
| AND | true | false | unknown |
-------------------------------------------------
| true | true
| false | unkown |
| false
| false | false | false |
| unknown | unknown | false | unknown |
-------------------------------------------------
cond1 and cond2 can be any conditions according to WHERE variants 1 - 12. AND
is stronger than OR but weaker than NOT. You can determine the analysis sequence explicitly using parentheses.
Parentheses determining the analysis sequence must be separated by spaces.
Example to select customers with customer numbers lower than '01000000' and who do not live in ZIP code area 68:
... WHERE ID < '01000000'
AND NOT
POSTCODE LIKE '68%'
cond1 OR cond2
cond1 OR cond2 is true when cond1 or cond2 is true. The condition is false if both cond1 and cond2 are false. This gives the following truth table:
-------------------------------------------------
| OR | true
| false | unknown |
-------------------------------------------------
| true | true | true | true |
| false | true | false | unknown |
| unknown | true | unknown | unknown |
-------------------------------------------------
cond1 and cond2 can be any conditions according to WHERE variants 1 - 12. OR
is weaker than AND and NOT. You can determine the analysis sequence dynamically using parentheses.
Parentheses determining the analysis sequence must be separated by spaces.
Example to select all customers with customer numbers less than '01000000' or greater than '02000000':
... WHERE ID < '01000000' OR
ID > '02000000'.
Example to select customers with customer numbers less than '01000000' or greater than '02000000' who do not live in ZIP code areas 68 or 69:
... WHERE ( ID < '01000000' OR ID > '02000000' )
AND NOT
( POSTCODE LIKE '68%' OR POSTCODE LIKE '69%' )
(source_text)
The condition is true if the contents of the table fields satisfy the
dynamic logical condition stored in the variable source_text as
ABAP source text. source_text is filled at runtime.
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